计算机的硬件

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楼主 2019-01-15 14:29:21
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First generation: tube digital machine(1946-1958)
In terms of hardware, the logic element uses a vacuum electron tube, and the main memory uses a Mercury delay line, a cathode ray display tube electrostatic memory, a drum, and a core; The external memory uses tape. Software uses machine language and assembly language. The field of application is mainly military and scientific calculations.
It is characterized by large size, high power consumption and poor reliability. Slow(usually thousands to tens of thousands of times per second), expensive, but laying the foundation for future computer development.

第一代:电子管数字机(1946—1958年)

硬件方面,逻辑元件采用的是真空电子管,主存储器采用汞延迟线、阴极射线示波管静电存储器、磁鼓、磁芯;外存储器采用的是磁带。软件方面采用的是机器语言、汇编语言。应用领域以军事和科学计算为主。

特点是体积大、功耗高、可靠性差。速度慢(一般为每秒数千次至数万次)、价格昂贵,但为以后的计算机发展奠定了基础.

The second generation: transistor digital machine(1958-1964)
The hardware side of the operating system, advanced language and its compiler. The application field is mainly based on scientific calculations and transaction processing, and it has begun to enter the field of industrial control. It is characterized by volume reduction, reduced energy consumption, improved reliability, increased computing speed(usually 100,000 times per second, up to 3 million times), and greatly improved performance compared to the first-generation computers.

第二代:晶体管数字机(1958—1964年)

硬件方的操作系统、高级语言及其编译程序。应用领域以科学计算和事务处理为主,并开始进入工业控制领域。特点是体积缩小、能耗降低、可靠性提高、运算速度提高(一般为每秒数10万次,可高达300万次)、性能比第1代计算机有很大的提高。

The third generation: integrated circuit digital machines(1964-1970)
In terms of hardware, logic components use small and medium-sized integrated circuits(MSI, SSI), and the main memory still uses magnetic cores. In terms of software, time-sharing operating systems and structured, large-scale programming methods have emerged. It is characterized by faster speeds(usually between millions and tens of millions of times per second), significant improvements in reliability, further reductions in prices, and product generalization, serialization, and standardization. The application field began to enter the field of word processing and graphic image processing.

第三代:集成电路数字机(1964—1970年)

硬件方面,逻辑元件采用中、小规模集成电路(MSI、SSI),主存储器仍采用磁芯。软件方面出现了分时操作系统以及结构化、规模化程序设计方法。特点是速度更快(一般为每秒数百万次至数千万次),而且可靠性有了显著提高,价格进一步下降,产品走向了通用化、系列化和标准化等。应用领域开始进入文字处理和图形图像处理领域。

The fourth generation: Large Scale Integrated Circuit Machines(1970-present)
In terms of hardware, logical components use large-scale and ultra-large scale integrated circuits(LSI and VLSI). In terms of software, database management systems, network management systems, and object-oriented languages have emerged. It is characterized by the birth of the world's first microprocessor in Silicon Valley in the United States in 1971, which created a new era of microcomputers. The application field gradually moves from scientific calculation, affairs management, and process control to the family.

第四代:大规模集成电路机(1970年至今)

硬件方面,逻辑元件采用大规模和超大规模集成电路(LSI和VLSI)。软件方面出现了数据库管理系统、网络管理系统和面向对象语言等。特点是1971年世界上第一台微处理器在美国硅谷诞生,开创了微型计算机的新时代。应用领域从科学计算、事务管理、过程控制逐步走向家庭。



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